Thursday, December 06, 2007

List of Islamic studies scholars (From Wikipedia)

Islamic studies scholars are both Muslim and non-Muslim scholars who work in one or more fields of Islamic studies. "Islamic studies" an umbrella term for all Islam-related studies, related to both Islamization of knowledge and an extrinsic study of Islam, and Islamic culture.

The entries in the list are accompanied by their date of birth, branch of Islam, country of birth, field of study, famous works and short description.



For a list of scholars specialized in:

Muslim scholars

Muslim scholars are either born in a Muslim families, or converted to Islam.

Shi'a Muslim

See also: List of Ayatollahs

See also: List of Grand Ayatollahs

See also: List of Shia scholars

Shi'a classic scholars and scientific revolutionaries

Shi'a contemporary scholars


Unorthodox scholars

Converts to Islam


This is a list of scholars of present and past that are not recognized as Muslims by the mainstream but profess to be Muslims as part of groups and small sects that deviate from the mainstream.

  • Rashad Khalifa - proclaimed himself to be the Messenger of the Covenant of 3:81.
  • Mirza Ghulam Ahmad 1835-1908 - proclaimed to be the Promised Reformer (Mahdi) and the Messiah.


  • => The [t] following a title indicates books translated into English.

Chronological by date of birth

622 to 1800

1800 to 1900

  • Gustav Flugel (1802-1870), Germany, Al-Qoran: Corani textus Arabicus (Leipzig 1834), Arabic text for academics.
  • Gustav Weil (1808-1889) Jewish German, Mohammed der Prophet (Stuttgart 1843); Biblische Legenden der Musel-manner (Frankfort 1845) [t]; Das Leben Mohammeds nach Mohammed ibn Ishak, bearbeitet von Abdel Malik ibn Hischam (Stuttgard 1864).
  • John Medows Rodwell (1808-1900), English translation of The Koran, using derived chronological sequence of Suras.
  • Pascual de Gayangos y Arce (1809-1897), Spanish Arabist, studied under de Sacy in Paris; translated al-Maqqari (d.1632) into English as History of the Mohammedan Dynasties of Spain (1840, 1843); Tratados de Legislación Musulmana (v.5, Mem.His.Esp. 1853).
  • Abraham Geiger (1810-1874) German rabbi and scholar, major founder of Reform Judaism, his Was hat Mohammed aus dem Judenthume aufgenommen? (Bonn 1833) [t] restates and updates a perennial thesis (e.g., cf. L. Marracci).
  • Aloys Sprenger (1813-1893) Austria, Das Leben und die Lehre des Mohammad (2nd edition, 3 volumes, Berlin 1869).
  • Carl Paul Caspari (1814-1892) German, Christian convert from Judaism, Norwegian academic, Grammatica Arabica (1844-48), Latin.
  • William Muir (1819-1905), Scotland, government official in India, The Life of Mohamet (London, 1861).
  • Edward Rehatsek (1819-1891) Hungary, later India, first translation of Sirah Rasul Allah into English (deposited, 1898).
  • Reinhart Dozy (1820-1883) Netherlands, Histoire des Musulmans d'Espagne jusqu'a la Conquete de l'Andalousie par les Almoravides (Leiden, 1861), 4 volumes; Recherches sur l'Histoire et la Littérature de l'Espagne pendant le moyen âge (1881).
  • Ernest Renan (1823-1892) French, Catholic apostate, Histoire generale et system compare des langues semitiques (Paris 1863).
  • Friedrich Max Muller (1823-1900) German philologist, comparative religion pioneer, Oxford Univ. professor, editor of 50 volume Sacred Books of the East, volumes 6 and 9 being the Qur'an translated by E. H. Palmer.
  • Francisco Javier Simonet (1825-c.1897) Spanish Arabist, traditional partisan, Leyendas históricas árabes (Madrid 1858); Historia de los mozarabes de Espana (Madrid 1897-1903); controversial views, e.g., suggesting that one-sided Muslim marriage law caused an insulation in the subject people that over generations fused their religious & lineage identities, consequently focus put on limpio de sangre.
  • Ludolf Krehl (1825-1901) Beitrage zur Muhammedanischen Dogmatik (Leipzig 1885).
  • Alfred von Kremer (1828-1889) Austria, professor of Arabic at Wien, foreign service to al-Qahirah, Kemet; Geschichte de herrschenden Ideen des Islams (Leipzig 1868); Culturgeschichte Streifzüge auf dem Gebiete des Islams (Leipzig 1873) [t].
  • Girish Chandra Sen (1836-1910) India, translated Muslim works into Bengali, including the Qur'an (1886); professor of Islam for the Brahmo Samaj, universalist Hindu reform society founded in 1828 by Ram Mohan Roy (1772-1833).
  • Francisco Codera y Zaidin (1836-1917) Tratado numismática arábigo-español (Madrid 1879); founded Bibliotheca Arabico-Hispana.
  • Michael Jan de Geoje (1836-1909) Dutch academic, led the editing of the Arabic text of Ta'rikh al-rasul wa'l muluk [History of Prophets and Kings] of the Persian al-Tabari (d. 923), in 14 volumes (Leiden: Brill 1879-1901).
  • Theodor Nöldeke (1836-1930) Germany, well regarded philologist and academic, Das Leben Mohammeds (1863); Zur Grammatik de klassische Arabisch (1896); with F. Schwally Geschichte des Qorans (Leipzig, 1909-1919, 2 volumes).
  • Edward Henry Palmer (1840-1882), English; traveler in Arab lands; called to the bar in 1874; tranlated Qur'an for the S.B.E. (1880); killed in Egypt by desert ambush while with British military patrol.
  • Ignazio Guidi (1844-1935) Italy, L'Arabe anteislamique (Paris 1921).
  • Julius Wellhausen (1844-1918) Germany, Muhammed in Medina (Berlin 1882); Das Arabische Reich und sein Sturz (Berlin 1902); his Prolegomena zur Geschichte Israels (Berlin 1878, 1882) [t] presents studies using the "higher criticism" of the Bible.
  • William Robertson Smith (1846-1894) Scotland, Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia (Cambridge 1885); Lectures on the Religion of the Semites (1889), sought to locate ancient Judaism in its historical context; in his Old Testament studies influenced by Wellhausen.
  • Italo Pizzi (1849-1920) L'Islamismo (Milan 1905).
  • Ignaz Goldziher (1850-1921), Hungary, Die Zahiriten (Leipzig 1884); Muhammedanische Studien (2 volumes, Halle 1889-1890) [t] {vol.2 questions hadith}; Vorlesungen uber den Islam (Heidelberg 1910, 1925) [t]; Die Richtungen der islamischen Koranauslegung (Leiden 1920); well regarded Jewish scholar, admirer of Islam, e.g., writing that he felt fulfillment when praying with Muslims in a Cairo mosque.
  • Martijn Theodoor Houtsma (1851-1943) Netherlands, lead editor of Encyclopaedia of Islam (Leiden: E.J.Brill 1913-1938), 9 volumes; eclipsed by a new edition (1954-2002) of 11 volumes with index and supplements.
  • Julián Ribera y Tarragó (1858-1934) Spain (Valencia), professor of Arabic, studies in mixed culture of al-Andalus (e.g., connections to the troubadours); El Cancionero de Abencuzmán (Madrid 1912); La musica de las Cantigas (Madrid 1922).
  • David Samuel Margoliouth (1858-1940), Anglican, his father a Jewish convert, Mohammed and the Rise of Islam (London 1905, 1923); Relations between Arabs and Israelites prior to the Rise of Islam (1924); Table-talk of a Mesopotamian judge (1921, 1922, 2 volumes).
  • William St. Clair Tisdall (1859-1928) Anglican priest, linguist, traditional partisan, The Original Sources of the Quran (S.P.C.K. 1905).
  • Edward G. Browne (1862-1926) English, A Literary History of Persia (4 volumes, 1902-1924).
  • Henri Lammens (1862-1937) Belgian (Flemish) Jesuit, a modern partisan; Fatima et ls filles de Mahomet (Roma 1912); Le berceau de l'Islam (Roma 1914); L'Islam, croyances et institutions (Beyrouth 1926) [t]; L'Arabe Occidental avant l'Hegire (Beyrouth 1928).
  • Henri Pirenne (1862-1935) Belgian historian, Mahomet et Charlemagne (Paris 1937) [t], how the Arab conquests disrupted Mediterranean trade, isolating the European economies which declined.
  • Maurice Gaudefroy-Desmombynes (1862-1957) France, Le pelerinage a la Mekke (Paris 1923); Le monde musulman et byzantin jusqu'aux croisades (Paris 1931) with S.F.Platonov; Les institutions musulmanes (Paris 1946) [t].
  • Duncan Black MacDonald (1863-1943) Scotland; Hartford Seminary in U.S.A.; Development of Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence and Constitutional Theory (New York 1903); The Religious Attitude and Life in Islam (Chicago 1909).
  • Thomas Walker Arnold (1864-1930) England, professor in India associating with Shibli Nomani & Muhammad Iqbal, later at London S.O.A.S.; The Caliphate (Oxford 1924); Painting in Islam. A study of the place of pictorial art in Muslim culture (1928); The Preaching of Islam (1929); Legacy of Islam (Oxford 1931) editor with A. Guillaume.
  • François Nau (1864-1913) Les chrétiens arabes en Mesopotamia et en Syrie au VIIe et VIIIe siècles (Paris 1933).
  • William Ambrose Shedd (1865-1918) U.S.A., Prebyterian, Islam and the Oriental Churches: Their historical relations (1904).
  • Theodor Juynboll (1866-1948) Handbuch des islamischen Gesetzes (Leipzig: Brill Harrassowitz 1910) on Islamic law.
  • Samuel Marinus Zwemer (1867-1952) U.S.A., Protestant missionary to Islam, later at Princeton Univ., Islam. A Challenge to Faith (New York 1907); Law of Apostasy in Islam (1924).
  • Leon Ostrorog, Comte (1867-1932) Poland, The Angora Reform (London 1927), on the "Law of Fundamental Organization" (1921) of republican Turkey transferring power from the Sultan to the Assembly; Pour la reforme de la justice ottomane (Paris 1912).
  • Reynold Nicholson (1868-1945) English, The Mystics of Islam (1914); A Literary History of the Arabs (Cambridge Univ. 1930).
  • Carl Brockelmann (1868-1956) Geschichte der arabischen Literatur (5 volumes, Weimar and Leiden, 1898-1942), Geschichte der islamischen Volker und Staaten (Munchen 1939) [t].
  • Leone Caetani (1869-1935) Italian nobleman, Annali dell'Islam (10 volumes, 1904-1926) reprint 1972, contains early Arabic sources.
  • Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (1869-1948) spiritual and independence leader in India, opposed caste divisions; prolific writer, teacher of satyagraha worldwide, which influenced Martin Luther King; his letter to Mohammad Ali Jinnah of Sept. 11, 1944, stated "My life mission has been Hindu-Muslim unity... not to be achieved without the foreign ruling power being ousted." Because of policies favorable to Islam, the mahatma was assassinated by a Hindu ultra-nationalist. Cf., McDonough, Gandhi's responses to Islam (199x).
  • Miguel Asín Palacios (1871-1944), Catholic priest, professor of Arabic, studied the mutuality of influence between Christian and Islamic spirituality (prompting vigorous response), Algazel (Zaragoza 1901); La escatologia musulmana en la Divina Comedia (Madrid 1923) ["t"] per influence on Dante of mi'raj literature; El Islam cristianizado. Estudio del sufismo a traves de las obras de Abenarabi de Murcia (Madrid 1931); Huellas del Islam (Madrid 1941) includes comparative articles on Tomas d'Aquino and Juan de las Cruz.
  • De Lacy O'Leary (1872-1957) Bristol Univ. Arabic Thought and Its Place in History (1922, 1939); Comparative Grammar of the Semitic Languages (1923); Arabia before Muhammad (1927); How Greek Science passed to the Arabs (1949).
  • Georg Graf (1875-1955) Germany, Geschichte der Christlichen Arabischen Literatur (Vatican 1944).
  • Richard Bell (1876-19xy) English, Origin of Islam in its Christian Environment (Edinburgh Univ. 1925).
  • Arthur S. Tritton (1881-1973) The Caliphs and their Non-Muslim Subjects. A critical study of the Covenant of 'Umar (Oxford 1930).
  • Alphonse Mingana (1881-1937) Assyrian Christian (Iraq), former priest, religious historian, collected early Syriac and Arabic documents and books into the "Mingana Collection".
  • Arent Jan Wensinck (1882-1939) Dutch, Mohammed en de Joden te Medina (Amsterdam 1908) [t]; La pensee de Ghazzali (Paris 1940); Handworterbuch des Islam (1941) [t] with J. H. Kramers; from Syriac, Bar Hebraeus's Book of the Dove (Leyden 1919).
  • Louis Massignon (1883-1962) France, influenced Catholic-Islamic understanding per the Nostra Aetate of Vatican II (1962-1965); a married priest (Orthodox [Arabic rite]), Essai sur les orgines du lexique technique de la mystique musulmane (Paris 1922, 2nd ed. 1954) [t]; Passion de Husayn Ibn Mansur Hallaj (Paris 1973) [t].
  • Nicolas P. Aghnides (1883-19xx) Mohammedan Theories of Finance (Columbia Univ. 1916).
  • Margaret Smith (1884-1970) Rabi'a the mystic and her fellow saints in Islam (Cambridge Univ. 1928); Studies in Early Mysticism in the Near and Middle East (1931) development of early Christian mysticism, of Islamic re sufism, and a comparison.
  • Seymour Gonne Vesey-Fitzgerald (1884-19xx), Muhammadan Law, an abridgement, according to its various schools (Oxford Univ. 1931); The Iraq Treaty, 1930 (London 1932).
  • Tor Andrae (1885-1947) Sweden, comparative religion, Univ.of Uppsala; Mohammed Sein Leben und Sein Glaube (Goettingen 1932) [t]; I myrtentradgarden: Studier i tidig islamisk mystik (1947) [t].
  • Philip Khuri Hitti (1886-1978) Lebanon, formative re Arabic studies in the U.S.A., Origins of the Islamic State (Columbia Univ. 1916) annotated translation of Kitab Futuh Al-Buldan of al-Baladhuri; History of Syria, including Lebanon and Palestine (1957).
  • Okawa Shumei (1886-1957) Japanese author; tried for war crimes after World War II; translated the Qur'an into Japanese (1950).
  • Giorgio Levi della Vida (1886-1967) Jewish Italian, professor of semitic languages, Storia e religione nell'Oriente semitico (Roma 1924); Les Sémites et leur rôle das l'histoire religieuse (Paris 1938); anti-Fascist Italian politician in 1920s.
  • Gonzangue Ryckmans (1887-1969) Belgium, Catholic priest, Louvain professor, epigraphy of pre-Islamic South Arabia; Les Religions Arabes preislamiques (Louvain 1951).
  • Harry Austryn Wolfson (1887-1974) U.S.A., Harvard Univ., Philo. Foundations of Religious Philosophy in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (1947); The Philosophy of the Kalam (1976); Repercussions of the Kalam in Jewish Philosophy (1979).
  • Ángel González Palencia (1889-1949) Spanish Arabist, História de la España musulmana (Barcelona 1925, 3rd ed 1932); História de la literatura arábigo-española (Barcelona 1928, 1945); Moros y cristianos in España medieval. Estudios históricos-literarios (1945).
  • Arthur Jeffery (1892-1959) American University at Cairo 1921-1938, Materials for the history of the text of the Quran (Leiden 1937-1951); Foreign Vocabulary in the Quran (Baroda 1938); A Reader on Islam (1962).
  • Barend ter Haar (1892-1941) Dutch, Beginselen en Stelsel van het Adatrecht (Groningen Batavia 1939) [t], on Adat law in Indonesia.
  • Willi Heffening (1894-19xx) Germany, Das islamische fremdenrecht zu den islamisch-fränkischen staatsverträgen. Eine rechtshistorischen studie zum fiqh (Hanover 1925).
  • E. A. Belyaev (1895-1964) Russia (USSR), Araby, Islam i arabskii Khalifat (Moskva, 2nd ed 1966) [t].
  • Henri Terrasse (1895-1971) French Arabist, Histoire du Maroc (2 volumes, Casablanca 1949-1950) [t]; Islam d'Espagne (Paris 1958).
  • José López Ortiz (1898-1992) Spain, Arabist with interest in legal history; article on fatwas of Granada; Los Jurisconsultos Musulmanes (El Escorial, 1930); Derecho musulman (Barcelona, 1932); a Catholic priest, later made Bishop.
  • Enrico Cerulli (1898-1988) Italy, Documenti arabi per la storia nell' Etiopia (Roma 1931); two works re Dante and Islam per M. Asín: Il "Libro della scala" e la question delle fonti arabo-spagnole della Divina commedia (Vatican 1949), Nuove ricerche sul "Libro della Scala" e la conoscenza dell'Islam in Occidente (Vatican 1972).

1900 to 1950

  • Josef Schacht (1902-1969) France (Alsace), Islamic legal history, Der Islam (Tübingen 1931); Origins of Muhammadan Jurisprudence (Oxford 1950) influential work, a legal historical critique (following, e.g., Goldziher) re the early oral transmission of Hadith & founding jurists; Introduction to Islamic Law (Oxford 1964); Legacy of Islam (2nd ed., Oxford 1974) edited with C. E. Bosworth.
  • J. Spencer Trimingham (1904-wxyz) English; Islam in Ethiopia (Oxford 1952), a history and current sociology; Sufi Orders in Islam (Oxford 1971); Christianity among the Arabs in Pre-Islamic Times (Beirut 1990).
  • Erwin Rosenthal (1904-wxyz) German Jewish, Political Thought in Medieval Islam (1958); Judaism and Islam (1961).
  • Arthur John Arberry (1905-1969) English, The Koran Interpreted (1955), a translation that attempts to capture the medium of the original Arabic; various other translations; Sufism. An Account of the Mystics of Islam (1950).
  • Emilio Garcia Gomez (1905-1995) Spain, Arabist, poet; Poemas arabigoandaluces (Madrid 1940); Poesia arabigoandaluza (Madrid 1952); his theories, e.g., on origins of the muwashshahat (popular medieval strophic verse); his admired translations from Arabic.
  • Henri Laoust (1905-wxyz) France, Essai sur les doctrines sociales et politiques de Taki-d-Din Ahmad Taimiya, cononiste 'anbalite (Le Caire 1939); Le traite de droit public d'Ibn Taimiya [al-Siyasah al-Shariyah] (Beirut 1948); Le politique de Gazali (Paris 1970).
  • Geo Widengren (1907-wxyz) Sweden, comparative religion; Muhammad, The Apostle of God, and His Ascension (Uppsala 1955).
  • Frithjof Schuon (1907-1998) German Swiss; of Traditionalist School (sophia perennis or "western" sufi), its co-founder with Rene Guenon and Ananda Coomaraswamy, influenced Seyyed Hossein Nasr; De l'unite transcendante des religions (Paris 1948) [t]; Comprendre l'Islam (Paris 1961) [t]; Regards sur le Mondes Anciens (Paris 1967) [t].
  • Henry Corbin (1907-1978) France, former Catholic, associated with Eranos Institute (inspired by Carl Jung), an academic re history of religions, idiosyncratic, long a resident of Tehran; Les Motifs zoroastriens dans la philosophie de Suhrawardi (Tehran 1948); Avicenne et la recit vissionaire (Tehran 1954) [t]; L'imagination creatrice dans le soufisme d'Ibn 'Arabi (Zurich 1955-56, Paris 1958) [t]; Terre celeste et corps de resurrection: de l'Iran mazdeen a l'Iran shi'ite (Paris 1960) [t].
  • Titus Burckhardt (1908-1984) German Swiss, early contact with Traditionalist School and Rene Guenon; Du Soufisme (Lyon 1951) [t]; Die Maurische Kultur in Spanien (Munchen 1970) [t]; great nephew of Jacob Burckhardt.
  • Abraham Katsh (1908-1998) U.S.A., Jewish academic, Judaism in Islam. Biblical and Talmudic backgrounds of the Koran and its Commentators, Sura I & II (New York 1954), reprinted 1962 as Judaism and the Koran.
  • William Montgomery Watt (1909-2006) Scottish Episcopal priest, Arabist, Muhammad at Mecca (Oxford 1953), Muhammad at Medina (Oxford, 1956); with P. Cachia A History of Islamic Spain (Edinburgh 1965); Formative Period of Islamic Thought (1998).
  • Martin Lings (1909-2005) Sufi scholar, Muhammed. His life based on the earliest sources (1983); Secret of Shakespeare (1984).
  • Józef Bielawski (1910-1997) Uniwersytet Warszawski, former Polish diplomat to Turkey; Historia lieratury arabskiej: zarys (Wroclaw 1968); translation of Qur'an into Polish (Warszawa 1986), improving on that of J.M.T.Buczacki (1858).
  • Giulio Basetti-Sani (1912-wxyz) Italy, Mohammed et Saint François (Ottawa 1959); Per un dialogo cristiano-musulmano (Milano 1969).
  • George Hourani (1913-1984) Lebanese English, Averroes. On the Harmony of Religion and Philosophy (London 1961) annotated translation of Kitab fasl al maqal of Ibn Rushd; Reason and Tradition in Islamic Ethics (Cambridge Univ. 1985); Arab Seafaring in the Indian Ocean in ancient and medieval times (Princeton Univ. 1951, 1995); brother of Albert Hourani.
  • Uriel Heyd [Heydt] (1913-1968) Jewish German, moved to Israel in 1934, Studies in old Ottoman criminal Law (Oxford 1973).
  • Robert Charles Zaehner (1913-1974) religious studies at Oxford, The Comparison of Religions (London 1958); Hindu and Muslim Mysticism (London 1960); Concordant Discord: The Interdependence of Faiths (Oxford 1970).
  • Franz Rosenthal (1914-wxyz) Fortleben der Antike im Islam (Zurich 1965); Muslim intellectual and social history (Variorum 1990).
  • Toshihiko Izutsu (1914-1993) Japan, Ethico-Religious Concepts in the Qur'an (1959, 1966); Sufism and Taoism (Berkeley 1984).
  • Igor Mikhailovich Diakonov (1914-1999) USSR/Russia, historian, linguistics, Semitokhamitskie iazyki [Semito-Hamitic languages] (Moskva 1965) [t]; Afraziiskie iazyki [Afrasian languages] (Moskva 1988) [t]; both on history and description of Afroasiatic languages.
  • Joseph Greenberg (1915-2001) U.S.A., Stanford Univ., linguistic anthropology; in historical linguistics use of his mass lexical comparison to establish language families; Languages of Africa (1966) coined "Afroasiatic" to replace "Hamito-Semitic" for it includes as equal branches Ancient Egyptian, Berber, Chadic, and Cushitic, as well as Semitic; also his recent book on Eurasiatic; cf. Nostratic.
  • Albert Hourani (1915-1993) Lebanese English, Minorities in the Arab World (Oxford 1947); Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age, 1798-1939 (1962) on the Arab nahda [revival]; Political Society in Lebanon (MIT 1986); A History of the Arab Peoples (1991, Harvard 2002).
  • Maxime Rodinson (1915-2004) Jewish French Marxist, Mahomet (Paris 1961) [t] as understood with empathy by an atheist; Islam et capitalisme (Paris 1966) [t]; Israel et le refus arabe (Paris 1968).
  • Bernard Lewis (1916->) Jewish English, prolific author, lately a modern partisan insider, Arabs in History (1950); Muslim Discovery of Europe (1982, 2001); What went Wrong? The Clash between Islam and Modernity in the Middle East (2002).
  • George Makdisi (1920-2002) U.S.A., Islamic studies, Rise of Colleges. Institutions of Learning in Islam and the West (Edinburgh Univ. 1981); Rise of Humanism in Classical Islam and the Christian West (Edinburgh Univ. 1990).
  • Marshall Hodgson (1922-1968) U.S.A., professor, Quaker, The Venture of Islam (3 volumes, Univ.of Chicago [1958], 1961, 1974); The Order of the Assassins (The Hague: Mouton 1955); Rethinking World History. Essays on Europe, Islam... (Cambridge Univ. 1993).
  • Annemarie Schimmel (1922-2003) Germany, studied Sufi texts in Turkey, Die Bildersprache Dschelaladdin Rumi (Walldorf 1949); Mevlana Celalettin Rumi'nin sark ve garpta tesirleri (Ankara 1963); Mystical Dimensions of Islam (Univ.of N.Carolina 1975).
  • Sabatino Moscati (1922->) Italy, Semitic studies, Le antiche civilita semitiche (Milano 1958) [t]; I Fenici e Cartagine (Torino 1972).
  • Bogumil Witalis Andrzejewski (1922-1994), Poland, linguistics at S.O.A.S. in London; Islamic literature in Somalia (Indiana Univ. 1983); formulator of Latin alphabet for Somali; also work in Oromo, another East Cushitic language, of the Afroasiatic language family.
  • Donald Leslie (1922-) Australia, Islamic Literature in China, late Ming and early Ch'ing (1981); Islam in Traditional China (1986).
  • Speros Vryonis (1928->) U.S.A., U.C.L.A., The Decline of Medieval Hellenism in Asia Minor and the Process of Islamization from the Eleventh through the Fifteenth Century (Univ. California 1971); Studies on Byzantium, Seljuks and Ottomans (Malibu 1981).
  • John Wansbrough (1928-2002) U.S.A., Islamic studies at S.O.A.S., a major reinterpretation of origins, utilizing Wellhausen higher criticism applied to Islam, Quranic Studies (Oxford 1977), Sectarian Milieu (Oxford 1978), books which sparked a traditionalist reaction.
  • Noel J. Coulson (1928-1986), History of Islamic Law (Edinburg Univ. 1964); Conflict and Tensions in Islamic Jurisprudence (Univ.of Chicago 1969); Law Reform in the Muslim World (1976).
  • Oriana Fallaci (1929-2006) Italian journalist, modern partisan, her La Rabbia e l'Orgoglio (2001); La Forza della Ragione (2004).
  • J. Hoeberichts (1929->) Netherlands, Franciscus en de Islam (Assen: Van Gorcum 199x) [t].
  • Wilferd Madelung (1930->) Germany, The Succession to Muhammad (Cambridge Univ. 1997); studies on the Shia.
  • Jacob Neusner (1932->) U.S.A., Jewish theologian, Comparing Religions through Law: Judaism and Islam (1999) with T.Sonn; Judaism and Islam in Practice (1999) editor, with T.Sonn & J.E.Brockopp; Three Faiths, One God (2003) with B.Chilton & W.Graham.
  • Edward W. Said (1935-2003) Palestine, Christian, academic, Columbia Univ., modern partisan; Orientalism (New York 1978), a work often cited & easy to exaggerate; collaborations with Christopher Hitchens (1988), Noam Chomsky (1999), John K. Cooley (2002).
  • William Chittick (c.193x->) U.S.A., collaborations with Seyyed Hossein Nasr and Allameh Tabatabaei in Iran; A Shi'ite Anthology (SUNY 1981); Sufi Path of Love (SUNY 1983) text and commentary on Rumi; Sufi Path of Knowledge (SUNY 1989) on Ibn Arabi; Imaginal Worlds. Ibn al-'Arabi and the Problem of Religious Diversity (SUNY 1994); spouse of S. Murata.
  • Sachiko Murata (c.193x->), Japan, Tao of Islam. A sourcebook on gender relationships in Islamic thought (SUNY 1992); Chinese Gleams of Sufi Light (SUNY 2000) with her translations from Chinese, and those from Persian by W. Chittick, her spouse.
  • Robert Simon (1939->) Hungary, Meccan Trade and Islam. Problems of origin and structure (Budapest 1989); Qur'an translation (1987).
  • John L. Esposito (1940->) U.S.A., Islam. The Straight Path (Oxford 1988); editor-in-chief Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World (4 volumes, 1995); Islam and Civil Society (European Univ. Inst. 2000).
  • Mark R. Cohen (1943->) Princeton Univ., Jewish Self-Government in Medieval Egypt (1980); Under Crescent & Cross (1994).
  • Gerald R. Hawting (1944->) with Wansbrough at S.O.A.S., The First Dynasty of Islam: The Umayyad Caliphate AD 661-750 (1986, 2000); The Idea of Idolatry and the Rise of Islam: From polemic to history (Cambridge Univ. 1999).
  • Karen Armstrong (1944->) English author, former nun; Muhammad, a Biography of the Prophet (San Francisco, 1993); Jerusalem: one city, three faiths (1997); A History of God (New York, 1999).
  • Patricia Crone (1945->) Denmark, professor in England & U.S.A., a modern partisan, God's Rule. Islam and Government (New York 2004); Roman, Provincial, and Islamic Law (Cambridge Univ. 1987); with M. Cook, Hagarism: The Making of the Islamic World (Cambridge Univ. 1977) following Wansbrough, sets forth the thesis (previously marginal, seldom explicit) that a multivalent sect of Judaic dissenters predated Muhammad and contributed to the Qur'an; not reprinted, Hagarism is largely rejected though cited.
  • Ibn Warraq [penname "son of a paper maker"] (1946->) Muslim (Pakistan) apostate, edited/translated: Origins of the Koran (1998), Quest for the Historical Muhammad (2000), both containing articles by well known 19th century western academics.
  • Norman Calder (1950-1998) Studies in Early Muslim Jurisprudence (Oxford 1993), reasoned analysis of early Islamic legal texts following Wansbrough, Schacht, Goldziher.

Chronological by date of publication

Other and Incomplete listings

See also

Salah S. Ali: Scholar in Comparative Cultural and Islamic Studies, Mosul University and HIA University College in Kristiansand, Norway

External links

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